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MySQL 5.7参考手册 / 字符集,排序规则,Unicode /支持的字符集和排序规则

10.10 Supported Character Sets and Collations

本节说明MySQL支持的字符集. 每一组相关字符集都有一个小节. 对于每个字符集,列出了允许的归类.

要列出可用的字符集及其默认排序规则,请使用SHOW CHARACTER SET语句或查询INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS表. 例如:

mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET;
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| Charset  | Description                     | Default collation   | Maxlen |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+
| big5     | Big5 Traditional Chinese        | big5_chinese_ci     |      2 |
| dec8     | DEC West European               | dec8_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| cp850    | DOS West European               | cp850_general_ci    |      1 |
| hp8      | HP West European                | hp8_english_ci      |      1 |
| koi8r    | KOI8-R Relcom Russian           | koi8r_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin1   | cp1252 West European            | latin1_swedish_ci   |      1 |
| latin2   | ISO 8859-2 Central European     | latin2_general_ci   |      1 |
| swe7     | 7bit Swedish                    | swe7_swedish_ci     |      1 |
| ascii    | US ASCII                        | ascii_general_ci    |      1 |
| ujis     | EUC-JP Japanese                 | ujis_japanese_ci    |      3 |
| sjis     | Shift-JIS Japanese              | sjis_japanese_ci    |      2 |
| hebrew   | ISO 8859-8 Hebrew               | hebrew_general_ci   |      1 |
| tis620   | TIS620 Thai                     | tis620_thai_ci      |      1 |
| euckr    | EUC-KR Korean                   | euckr_korean_ci     |      2 |
| koi8u    | KOI8-U Ukrainian                | koi8u_general_ci    |      1 |
| gb2312   | GB2312 Simplified Chinese       | gb2312_chinese_ci   |      2 |
| greek    | ISO 8859-7 Greek                | greek_general_ci    |      1 |
| cp1250   | Windows Central European        | cp1250_general_ci   |      1 |
| gbk      | GBK Simplified Chinese          | gbk_chinese_ci      |      2 |
| latin5   | ISO 8859-9 Turkish              | latin5_turkish_ci   |      1 |
| armscii8 | ARMSCII-8 Armenian              | armscii8_general_ci |      1 |
| utf8     | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8_general_ci     |      3 |
| ucs2     | UCS-2 Unicode                   | ucs2_general_ci     |      2 |
| cp866    | DOS Russian                     | cp866_general_ci    |      1 |
| keybcs2  | DOS Kamenicky Czech-Slovak      | keybcs2_general_ci  |      1 |
| macce    | Mac Central European            | macce_general_ci    |      1 |
| macroman | Mac West European               | macroman_general_ci |      1 |
| cp852    | DOS Central European            | cp852_general_ci    |      1 |
| latin7   | ISO 8859-13 Baltic              | latin7_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf8mb4  | UTF-8 Unicode                   | utf8mb4_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1251   | Windows Cyrillic                | cp1251_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf16    | UTF-16 Unicode                  | utf16_general_ci    |      4 |
| utf16le  | UTF-16LE Unicode                | utf16le_general_ci  |      4 |
| cp1256   | Windows Arabic                  | cp1256_general_ci   |      1 |
| cp1257   | Windows Baltic                  | cp1257_general_ci   |      1 |
| utf32    | UTF-32 Unicode                  | utf32_general_ci    |      4 |
| binary   | Binary pseudo charset           | binary              |      1 |
| geostd8  | GEOSTD8 Georgian                | geostd8_general_ci  |      1 |
| cp932    | SJIS for Windows Japanese       | cp932_japanese_ci   |      2 |
| eucjpms  | UJIS for Windows Japanese       | eucjpms_japanese_ci |      3 |
| gb18030  | China National Standard GB18030 | gb18030_chinese_ci  |      4 |
+----------+---------------------------------+---------------------+--------+

在一个字符集具有多个排序规则的情况下,可能不清楚哪种排序规则最适合给定的应用程序. 为避免选择错误的排序规则,对代表性数据值进行一些比较以确保给定的排序规则按照您期望的方式对值进行排序可能会有所帮助.